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Professor George Enyimah Arma, PhD

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Electron Microscopy & Histopathology (EM)


Professor George Armah holds an MSc in Physics from the University of Ghana Legon, and a PhDin Biophysical Chemistry and Immunology from  Osaka University, Japan.Prof Armah is a member of several international scientific Boards and Committees and wasrecently recognised as a “Vaccine Hero” by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

In 2013 he was honoured by the International Double stranded RNA Virus conference in Puerto Rico for his outstanding contribution to the field of Rotavirus virology and for Rotavirus Vaccine introduction in Africa. He is currently a foundation member of the Rotavirus Organization of Technical Advisers (ROTA) council.ProfessorArmahis currently Chairman of the Board of the Volta Aluminium Company (VALCO).

Administrative Role:

Professor Armah  was the Head of Electron Microscopy and is currently the Master of Commonwealth Hall, University of Ghana

Research Interests:

·         Viral Gastroenteritis.

·         Malaria Immunology and Pathogenesis


1.       Evaluation of the Effects of Permethrin Impregnated Bednets on Child Mortality in Upper East Region of Ghana. (1994 -1998)

The impact of permethrin impregnated bednets (PIB) on malaria vectors and all case mortality in the 1-4 year group in theKassenaNankanaDistrict of the Upper East Region was investigated to document the efficacy of the use of impregnated bednets as an intervention tool. This was a collaborative project with the Navrongo Health Research Unit.

 2.       Pathogenesis and Mechanisms involved in Severe Malaria (1999-2000)

The pathogenesis and mechanisms involved in cerebral and complicated malaria was studied using the mouse malaria model. The study was to examine the association between e elevated TNF-a levels, cerebral malaria severe anemia using the mouse model.

 3.       Immunogenicity trial of the Wyeth RRV Vaccine  in Navrongo (1998 – 2002):-

This was a double blinded placebo controlled trial to study the immunogenicity of the Wyert vaccine in children in northern Ghana and to document circulating rotavirus strains in Navrongo.  The efficacy arm of the study did not see completion because of the withdrawal of vaccine.

 4.       Rotavirus Disease Surveillance in Northern Ghana and (1998 – 2002)

A surveillance of circulating rotavirus strains in Navrongo was performed over a 2- year period spanning 1998-2002 to document rotavirus genotypes in northern Ghana. Viruses isolated from children with diarrhoea were genotyped and the serotypes determined.  The prevalence of rotavirus infection was high during the dry season (>40%) and unusual rotavirus strains were commonly isolated.


5.       A phase II, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of two doses of GSK Biologicals oral live attenuated human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine in health infants in South Africa (2000-2002)         

This study was to address the issue of possible interference of vaccine with other EPI vaccines especially the oral polio vaccine. It was also to help estimate the immunogenicity of the vaccine, the safety and the reactogenicity of each dose. This was a double blinded randomised control study with 3 arms of 150 healthy infants with each arm receiving one of the following: HRV vaccine+PV+DTPa/Hib; HRVvaccine+placeboOPV+DPTa/Hib or HRV Placebo+ OPV+DTPa/Hib.


6.       Genetic characterization of unusual rotavirus strains in Africa (2002 – DATE)

This is an ongoing project with the African Rotavirus Network and involves the collating of all isolated unusual rotavirus trains and the determination of the genetic relatedness to reported circulating strains in Africa and elsewhere.  The project also seeks to develop a trained technical pool for future rotavirus surveillance studies in Africa.


7.       The cost of treating diarrhoea: a case study of war Memorial Hospital in Northern Ghana (2005).

This study estimated the treatment cost for diarrhoea in the main referral hospital in Navrongo, Ghana. The treatment cost estimate was based on inputs collected on the capital cost of buildings, purchase of capital equipment, recurrent cost and costs of diagnostic test and prescribed drugs.


8.       Hospital based burden of disease studies to assess impact of rotavirus associated diarrhoea in under 5 year olds in Navrongo during a rotavirus season (2003 to September 2006)

The hospital based burden of disease designed to assess the impact of rotavirus associated diarrhoea in under-5 year olds in Navrongo during a rotavirus season The major objectives of the study are to estimate (1) the incidence of hospitalizations associated with rotavirus in Navrongo, (2) the proportion of diarrhoea hospitalizations in children under 5 years of age attributable to rotaviruses and (3) the disease burden due to rotavirus infection in the KassenaNankana District.


9.       Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity of RotaTeq in Infants in  Africa and Asia (2006 -2009)

The study was a multicentre double blinded placebo controlled , randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of RotaTeq in Africa (Ghana, Kenya and Mali) and Asia (Bangladesh and Vietnam) The primary objective was to evaluate efficacy of RotaTeq against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in each region The secondary outcomes included  vaccine efficacy against rotavirus gastroenteritis of any severity; disease by individual serotypes;  severe gastroenteritis of any cause . A total of 2200 children between the ages of 4 weeks through exactly 12 weeks were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive three oral doses of the vaccine or placebo at 6 weeks, 10 weeks and 14 weeks of age. Infants were also given other routine expanded programme in immunization (EPI) vaccines. To evaluate the safety of RotaTeq, all subjects were followed for serious adverse events (SAEs) for 14 days following any vaccination and for vaccine-related SAEs and deaths until the end of the study.


10.   A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of the Efficacy, Immunogenicity, And Safety of 2 single Doses of Rhesus Rotavirus Vaccine Tetravalent Vaccine (RRV-TV)  in Neonates/Infants.

The study was initiated in July 2009 with a primary objective of evaluating the efficacy of 2 single doses of 4 x 105 PFU/dose of RRV‑TV against infection with RV in neonatal/infantile subjects (samples size of 1000).  The study is also designed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of 2 single doses of RRV‑TV in neonatal/infantile subjects.

11.   Immunogenicity of the human rotavirus vaccine(Rotarix) at varying schedules and ages in rural Ghana (2012). The primary objective was to evaluate the seroconversion  ( IgA seroconversion ≥20 U/mL) following vaccination of  children seronegative at baseline  with a three- versus the two-dose schedule of the Rotarix vaccine.

12.   Effectiveness of the Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine (Rotarix TM) against Severe Rotavirus Diarrheal in Ghana (2012): This is a collaborative study with the Ghana Health Service and the Centre for Disease Control; (USA). The objective of this study is  to measure the impact of rotavirus vaccination on rotavirus and all-cause diarrhoea morbidity in Ghana.

 13.   Post-marketing Intussusception Monitoring after Introduction of Oral Rotavirus Vaccines (2013). This is a collaborative study with the Ghana Health Service and the Centre for Disease Control; (USA). The specific aim of this evaluation is to monitor vaccine safety by assessing for any potential association between oral rotavirus vaccines and intussusception, after national introduction of the vaccine in the routine childhood immunization schedule



  1. Armah G.E., Binka F.N. Sustaining rotavirus vaccination in Africa: measuring vaccine effectiveness. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Nov;14(11):1031-2. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70961-2. Epub 2014 Oct 7.


  1. Enweronu-Laryea C.C., Boamah I, Sifah E, Diamenu S.K, Armah G. Decline in severe diarrhea hospitalizations after the introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Ghana: a prevalence study.BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 6;14:43.
  2. Dennis F.E., Fujii Y, Haga K, Damanka S, Lartey B, Agbemabiese C.A., Ohta N, Armah G.E., Katayama K. Identification of novel Ghanaian G8P[6] human-bovine reassortant rotavirus strain by next generation sequencing. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 27; 9(6).


  1. Enweronu-Laryea C.C., Sagoe K.W., Mwenda J.M., Armah G.E. Severe acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in children less than 5 years in southern Ghana: 2006-2011. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Jan;33Suppl 1:S9-S13.


  1. Tagbo B.N., Mwenda J.M., Armah G, Obidike E.O., Okafor U.H., Oguonu T, Ozumba U.C., Eke C.B., Chukwubuike C, Edelu B.O., Ezeonwu B.U., et.  alEpidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea among children younger than 5 years in Enugu, South East, Nigeria. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Jan;33 Suppl 1:S19-22.


  1. Enweronu-Laryea C.C., Sagoe K.W., Damanka S, Lartey B, Armah G.E. Rotavirus genotypes associated with childhood severe acute diarrhoea in southern Ghana: a cross-sectional study. Virol J. 2013 Sep 14;10:287.


  1. G. E. Armah, A. Z. Kapikian, T. Vesikari, N.Cunliffe, R. M. Jacobson, D. B. Burlington, and Leonard P. Ruiz Jr. Efficacy, Immunogenicity, and Safety of two doses of a Tetravalent Rotavirus Vaccine RRVTV in Ghana with the first dose administered during the Neonatal Period. J Infect Dis. 2013 May 23.


  1. George E. Armah, Robert F. Breiman, Milagritos D. Tapia, Samba S. Sow, Michael J. Dallas, A. Duncan Steele, Fred Binka, Joel Ojwando, Max Ciarlet, and Kathleen M. Neuzil. Immunogenicity of the Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine in African Infants. Vaccine. 2012 Apr 27;30 Suppl 1:A86-93


  1. Robert F. Breiman, K. Zaman, George Armah, Samba O. Sow, Dang Dun Anh, John C. Victor, Darcy Hille, Max Ciarlet, Kathleen Neuzil. Analysis of health outcomes from 5 sites participating in the Africa and Asia clinical efficacy trials of oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. Vaccine. 2012 Apr 27;30 Suppl 1:A24-9


  1. Tapia M.D., Armah G, Breiman R.F., Dallas M.J., Lewis K.D., Sow S.O., Rivers S.B., Levine M.M., Laserson K.F., Feikin D.R., Victor J.C., Ciarlet M, Neuzil K.M., Steele A.D. Secondary efficacy endpoints of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against gastroenteritis in sub-Saharan Africa.

Vaccine. 2012 Apr 27;30Suppl 1:A79-85.


  1. Lewis KD, Dallas MJ, Victor JC, Ciarlet M, Mast TC, Ji M, Armah G, Zaman K, Ferraro A, Neuzil KM. Comparison of two clinical severity scoring systems in two multi-center, developing country rotavirus vaccine trials in Africa and Asia. Vaccine. 2012 Apr 27;30 Suppl 1:A159-66


  1. Abbott C, Tiede B, Armah G, Mahmoud A.  Evaluation of cost-effectiveness of live oral pentavalent reassortant rotavirus vaccine introduction in Ghana. Vaccine30, 2012,2582-2587.


  1. Mbuh FA, Armah GE, Omilabu SA, Ahmad AA, Umoh JU. Molecular epidemiology of group A human rotaviruses in North West region, Cameroon. Pan Afr Med J. 2012;12:108. Epub 2012 Aug 15.
  2. Christabel C. Enweronu-Laryea, Kwamena W. C. Sagoe, Hope Glover-Addy, Richard H. Asmah, Julius A. Mingle, George E. ArmahPrevalence of severe acute rotavirus gastroenteritis and intussusceptions in Ghanaian children under 5 years of age. J Infect DevCtries2012; 6(2):148-155.


  1. Wiysonge CS, Armah GE, Madhi SA, Were F, Kitaka SB, Akoua-Koffi C, Gresenguet G, Gatheru Z, Maranga PW, Dicko A, Falade AG, Boula AY, Kuit SB, Odusanya OO, Sow PS, Lakhani N, Mpabalwani EM, Tamfum JJ, Hussey GD.  The African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network: a vaccine advocacy initiative. Pan Afr Med J. 2011;8:24. Epub 2011 Mar 14.


  1. Bonkoungou IJ, Damanka S, Sanou I, Tiendrébéogo F, Coulibaly SO, Bon F, Haukka K, Traoré AS, Barro N, Armah GE. Genotype diversity of group A rotavirus strains in children with acute diarrhea in urban Burkina Faso, 2008-2010.  J Med Virol. 2011 Aug;83(8):1485-90. doi: 10.1002/jmv.22137.


  1. Binka E, Vermund SH, Armah GE. Rotavirus diarrhea among children less than 5 years of age in urban Ghana.  Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011 Aug;30(8):716-8.


  1. Esona MD, Banyai K, Foytich K, Freeman M, Mijatovic-Rustempasic S, Hull J, Kerin T, Steele AD, Armah GE, Geyer A, Page N, Agbaya VA, Forbi JC, Aminu M, Gautam R, Seheri LM, Nyangao J, Glass R, Bowen MD, Gentsch JR.  Genomic characterization of human rotavirus G10 strains from the African Rotavirus Network: relationship to animal rotaviruses.  Infect Genet Evol. 2011 Jan;11(1):237-41.


  1. Armah GE,  Sow SO,  Breiman RF,  Dallas MJ,  Tapia MD,  Feikin DR,  Binka FN,  Steele AD,  Laserson KF,  Ansah NA,  Levine MM,  Lewis K,  Coia ML,  Attah-Poku M,  Ojwando J,  Rivers SB,  Victor JC,  Nyambane G,  Hodgson A,  Schödel F,  Ciarlet M,  Neuzil KM.  Efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.  Lancet. 2010 Aug 21; 376(9741): 606-14. Epub2010 Aug 6.


  1. Armah GE,  Steele AD,  Esona MD,  Akran VA,  Nimzing L,  Pennap G.  Diversity of rotavirus strains circulating in west Africa from 1996 to 2000.J Infect Dis.2010 Sep 1; 202 Suppl: S64-71.


  1. Neuzil K M, Armah GE, Parashar UD, Steele AD.  Rotavirus in Africa: Shifting the focus of Diseases preventionJ infect Dis. 2010;202Suppl 1: S1-S4.


  1. Dongdem JT, Adjimani  J, Armah G. Detection and characterization of human rotavirus in tap water by multiplex RT-PCR Journal of medicine and medical Science2010 July: 1(6):223-230.
  2. Page N,  Esona M,  Armah G,Nyangao J,  Mwenda J,  Sebunya T,  Basu G,  Pyndiah N,  Potgieter N,  Geyeer A,  Steele AD.  Emergence and characterization of serotype G9 rotavirus strains from Africa. J Infect Dis.2010 Sep 1; 202 Suppl: S55-63.


  1. Mwenda JM,  Ntoto KM,  Abebe A,  Enweronu-Laryea C,  Amina I,  Mchomvu J,  Kisakye A,  Mpabalwani EM,  Pazvakavambwa I,  Armah GE,Seheri LM,  Kiulia NM,  Page N,  Widdowson MA,  Steele AD.  Burden and epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in selected African countries: preliminary results from the Africanrotavirus Surveillance Network.J Infect Dis2010 Sep 1; 202 Suppl: S5-S11.


  1. Ayolabi CI, Ojo DA, Armah GE, akpan I and Mafiana CF. Detection and partial characterization of noroviruses among children with acute gastroenteritis in Lagos, Nigeria. International journal of medicine and medical sciences. July 2010: 2 (7): 216-221.


  1. Esona MD,  Steele D,  Kerin T,  Armah G,Peeze I,  Geyer A,  Page N,  Nyangao J,  Agbaya VA,  Trabelsi A, Tsion B,  Aminu M,  Sebunya T,  Dewer J,  Glass R,  Gentsch J.  Determination of the G and P types of previously nontypeable rotavirus strains from the African Rotavirus Network, 1996-2004: Identification of unusualGtypes.J Infect Dis.2010Sep 1;202 Suppl: S49-54

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